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Routers

Can Two Routers Be Used on the Same Home Network?

It is possible to utilize two (or even more than two) routers on the same home network. The benefits of a two-router network include: · Support for more wired devices: If your first router is the wired Ethernet kind, it supports only a limited number of connected devices (typically only four or five). A second router provides more open Ethernet ports enabling additional computers to join the network. · Support for mixed wired and wireless network setups: If you have a wired home network and want to also connect some Wi-Fi devices to it, installing a wireless router as the second router allows those devices to connect while allowing the rest of the network to remain on Ethernet. Conversely, a second router also helps when most clients in the home are wireless, but a few Ethernet devices in one room (like game consoles, and file sharing servers) could benefit from a wired setup. · Improved wireless reach (signal range): Adding a second wireless router to an existing Wi-Fi network can greatly extend its reach to accommodate far away devices. · Network isolation: If you heavily utilize the network connection between certain computers (such as frequent large file transfers, or LAN gaming), installing those computers to run from one router keeps that network traffic from affecting the other router and all of its attached devices. Choosing a Router There are many different types of routers available. From most economical to the best rated, here are some of the top ones on the market, and they’re all available on Router-Switch.com. Installing a Two Router Network at Home Installing a router to work as the second one on a home network requires special configuration. Setup involves choosing a good location, ensuring the right physical connections, and configuring IP address settings (including DHCP). Alternatives To a Second Home Router Instead of adding a second wired router to an existing network, consider adding an Ethernet switch. A switch accomplishes the same goal of extending the size of a network, but it does not require any IP address or DHCP configuration, greatly simplifying setup. For Wi-Fi networks, consider adding a wireless access point rather than a second router.

How to use the IR829/809 Mini-USB Console Cable with Windows 10?

The blue mini-USB console cable that is included with the IR829 (and other 800 series devices) connects the mini-USB console port, under the screwed down plate, to a USB port on your PC. The two main aspects to think about when using Windows as a client for a console connection via the mini-USB cable are determining which COM port to connect to, and which terminal emulation software to use. Windows used to be shipped with HyperTerminal, so many people are accustomed to using that as a console client. HyperTerminal is licenced software ($65), so that may not be what you want. A free alternative, and arguably simpler to use, is PuTTY, which I shall describe below. Either tool, and others like them, will connect to a COM port. The trick is knowing which. In Windows 10, before you insert the USB console cable, you can open the "Device Manager" to see the available COM ports (type "Device Manager" into the Cortana field). The Device Manager will display a tree of devices on your PC. Open "Ports (COM & LPT)" and you may see some ports already (what you will see depends on your PC's configuration). Then, plug in the USB console cable and additional ports will appear. In my case COM4 and COM5, specifically "Silicon Labs Dual CP210x USB to UART Bridge: Standard COM Port (COM4)", and the same for COM5. One of those ports, COM4 or COM5 or whichever appears for you, will work for serial connection purposes with PuTTY, or other terminal emulators. You can run PuTTY by typing "Putty" in Cortana, and then selecting the "PuTTY Desktop app" icon that should appear. The PuTTY Configuration window will appear, defaulting to "SSH" settings. Select the "Serial" radio button and the fields will change to show a "Serial line" field and a "Speed" field. The Serial line field will have a default value, typically, of "COM1". You will need to change that to one of the COM ports that appeared when you were looking at the Device Manager as described above, e.g. COM4. The Speed value should stay at the default of 9600. After changing the Serial line value, press return and a console window should appear with a prompt. If there is no prompt, try again with a different COM port value, COM5 say. It is possible that the drivers required to make this work are not present in your copy of Windows. In which case you may need to install them. The drivers here may work for you.

Routing protocol: OSPF vs. RIP

Both of OSPF and RIP are the routing protocols.

Concept

RIP is a distributed distance vector based routing protocol.

OSPF is a distributed link-state routing protocol.

Working Principle

We can compare them deeply.

RIP exchanges state only between adjacent routers. The information exchanged by the router is all the information currently known by the router, namely the routing table. Routing information is exchanged at regular intervals.

OSPF sends information to all routers of the local AS. The information sent is the link state of all routers adjacent to the router. That is, the network topology of the router. If the link status changed, the router will use flooding to send information to all routers.

Pros and Cons

In RIP, each router only knows the distance to all routers and the next hop router, and does not know the entire network topology, because of the different locations, each router's routing table is different. In the event of a network failure, to go through it takes a long time for this information to be transmitted to all routers. The so-called "good news spreads quickly, bad news spreads slowly". It also has slow convergence.

In OSPF, since the information exchanged is the link state of neighboring routers, each router can establish a link state database (that is, the topology diagram of the entire network). This database is consistent throughout the entire network. (This is called "synchronization of the link state database"). In OSPF, the link database can be updated quickly, so the OSPF update process converges quickly.

Furthermore, RIP protocol uses transport layer user datagram UDP for transmission, and OSPF directly uses IP datagram for transmission.

Comparison Chart

Features

RIP

OSPF

RIP v1

RIP v2

Algorithm

Bellman-Ford

Dijkstra

Path Selection

Hop based

Shortest Path

Routing

Classful

Classless

Classless

Transmission

Broadcast

Multicast

Multicast

Administrative Distance

120

110

Hop Count Limitation

15

No Limitation

Authentication

No

MDS

MDS

Protocol

UDP

IP

Convergence Time

RIP > OSPF

Routing protocol: 10 Differences between OSPF and EIGRP

As we all know, both of OSPF and EIGRP are the Dynamic Routing Protocols. OSPF is used widely because of its strong standard protocol and supporting various manufacturers’ devices. EIGRP is made by the leading network hardware manufacturer, Cisco, so that it occupies much of the market. However, what are their differences between OSPF and EIGRP? Let’s read their 10 differences. 1. EIGRP is private for Cisco, and OSPF is a generic protocol. 2. EIGRP is a distance vector protocol and OSPF is a link state protocol. 3. EIGRP supports automatic summary functions. It can automatically summarize at the boundary of the A.B.C type network, and also supports manual configuration. Conversely, OSPF cannot, and the summary must be manually configured. 4. EIGRP converges faster than OSPF because it preserves optional successors in its topology map and can pass directly through optional subsequent relays if direct successors are not found. 5. EIGRP multicast address is 224.0.0.10 and OSPF is 224.0.0.5 and 224.0.0.6. 6. EIGRP path metrics are complex, and OSPF is Cost type. 7. Although EIGRP supports the route summarization function, it does not have the concept of hierarchical routing and does not classify networks as OSPF does. 8. In the establishment of a neighbor relationship, EIGRP does not have a complex Down-Init-Two way process. As long as a router sees a neighbor's hello packet, it establishes an adjacency with it. 9. In the implementation of summary functions, EIGRP can be implemented on any interface of any router, while OSPF can only be implemented on ABR and ASBR, and its route summary is not interface-based. 10. EIGRP supports load balancing of unequal path metrics, while OSPF only supports load balancing of equal metrics.

Benefits of OSPF Protocol

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). It’s used to decision routing in the autonomous systems. It realizes the Link State Routing Protocol, belonging to IGP, so that it works in the internal system. As a common protocol, let’s know 7 benefits of it. 1. OSPF is a true LOOP- FREE (route-free loop) routing protocol. It is derived from the merits of the algorithm itself. 2. Fast convergence of OSPF: The route changes can be transmitted to the entire autonomous system in the shortest time. 3. The concept of area division is proposed. After the autonomous system is divided into different regions, the summary of routing information between the regions is adopted, which greatly reduces the quantity of routing information to be transmitted. It also makes routing information not expand rapidly as the network scale increases. 4. The protocol itself minimizes the overhead. See below: (1) For the discovery and maintenance of neighbor relationships, the hello messages that do not contain routing information are sent regularly and are very short. The message containing the routing information is the mechanism that triggers the update. (Send when there is a route change). However, in order to enhance the robustness of the protocol, it is re-issued every 1800 seconds. (2) In broadcast networks, multicast addresses are used instead of broadcast to reduce the interference to other network devices that do not operate OSPF. (3) In various types of networks that can be accessed multiple times (broadcast, NBMA), by electing DR, the number of route exchanges (synchronizations) between routers on the same network segment is reduced from O (N*N) times to O (N) times. (4) The concept of an NSSA area is proposed so that the introduced ASE route is no longer propagated within the NSSA area. (5) Supports route aggregation on ABRs (Area Border Routers) to further reduce routing information transfer between regions. (6) In the point-to-point interface type, OSPF over On Demand Circuits is configured so that it no longer sends hello packets periodically and updates routing information regularly. Updates are sent only when the network topology really changes. 5. Through the strict division of the level of routing (a total of four points), it provides more reliable routing. 6. Good security. OSPF supports interface-based plaintext and md5 authentication. 7. OSPF adapts to various scales of networks, up to thousands of units.

What is RIP protocol? The versions of RIP

What is RIP protocol? The versions of RIP

RIP, which stands for Routing Information Protocol, is a routing protocols based on the distance-vector which employ the hop count as a routing metric.

...[详细介绍]

11 Basic Configuration Commands of OSPF Configuration

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). How to configure the OSPF? We collect 11 basic configuration commands here. 1. Configure LOOPBACK Port Address ROUTER(config)#interface loopback 0 ROUTER(config)#ip address IP Address Mask 2. OSPF Area Configuration router ospf 100 network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 router-id 192.168.2.1 Manual Setting router-id area 1 default-cost 50 Manual Setting Cost #clean ip ospf process 3. Configure OSPF Cleartext authentication Interface s0 ip ospf authentication ip ospf authentication-key <; password> 4. Configure OSPF Ciphertext Authentication interface s0 ip ospf authentication ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 7 <; password> 5. debug ip ospf adj Enable ospf Debugging show ip protocols show ip ospf interface s0 6. Manually configure interface costs, bandwidth, priority inter s0 ip ospf cost 200 bandwidth 100 ip ospf priority 0 7. Virtual Link Configuration router ospf 100 area virtual-link show ip ospf virtual-links Show ip ospf border-routers Show ip ospf process-id Show ip ospf database show ip ospf database nssa-external 8. OSPF Route induction Router ospf 1\\ Routing summary of routes outside the ASBR Summary-address 200.9.0.0 255.255.0.0 Router ospf 1\\ Perform route summary from AREA1 to AREA0 Area 1 range 192.168.16.0 255.255.252.0 9. Configure Stub Area IR area stub ABR area stub 10. Configure Completely Stub Area IR area stub ABR area stub no-summary 11. Configure NSSA ASBR router ospf 100 area 1 nssa ABR router ospf 100 area 1 nssa default-information-orrginate

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